Bioestadística para no estadísticos: Bases para interpretar artículos científicos (Spanish Edition)

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The variety of existing regulations demands a critical review of the decisions taken to promote the inclusion of those students. Current regulations-in-force in each AC that regulate attention to diversity AD have been were analyzed by using a checklist that includes the variables that defining each stage of the AD process and the ways of providing supports that favor the development, learning and participation of SWID.

Attention to diversity measures in each AC emphasize organizational and curricular issues, with no AC following holistic approaches in both assessment and intervention, but rather neglecting self-determination and the promotion of quality of life for SWID. Guidelines for the development of new legal frameworks and professional practices based on the latest evidence-based models of attention to SWID and on the results are discussed.

The goal was to compare the achievement goal profile and the motivational regulations of one world-class and two high-level athletes during their preparation for the Rio Olympic Games.


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Three kayakers from the Spanish Olympic team participated. One P1 and two P2 were high-level athletes: Participant three P3 was a world-class athlete: Before and after three training sessions and 4 international competitions including World and European championships all participants completed a questionnaire to assess their achievement goal orientation, dominance and pursuit, as well as their motivational regulation. Generalized estimated equations GEE analysis was used to assess significant differences between subjects.

P3 had lower performance-approach goal orientation, stronger mastery-approach goal dominance, lower performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal pursuit, higher mastery-avoidance goal pursuit and lower controlled motivation than the other two participants. Our world-class athlete has a strong mastery-approach achievement goal dominant profile, and a low performance-oriented profile both approach and avoidance and controlled motivation.

This profile should be confirmed in similar athletes to help coaches and their young athletes make appropriate decisions. Uno P1 y dos P2 eran deportistas de alto nivel: Tres P3 era un deportista de clase mundial: The relationship between defensive pessimism, self-esteem, and achievement goals is a controversial issue. The main contribution of this research is the adoption of a person-centered approach to explore the existence of differentiated profiles of university students, which combine self-esteem and defensive pessimism.

In addition, we analyze whether these profiles differ in their achievement goals learning, performance- approach, performance-avoidance, and work-avoidance. Four student profiles were identified: These four profiles differ significantly in their achievement goals. The use of defensive pessimism may involve students with either low or high self-esteem, although the two profiles follow differentiated motivational achievement trajectories.

Estos cuatro perfiles se diferencian significativamente en las metas de logro que adoptan. Bullying as a construct is found to be related to a variety of individual, parental and academic factors. Familial factors include family environment, parenting style and parental involvement. The main aim of this study is to find out how Primary and Secondary Education students perceive parenting styles and social climate and if there are differences between pupils from these two educational stages.

The study also considers the relationship between these perceptions of bullying victims and certain peer socio-affective factors. Participants were children and adolescents. Roles associated with bullying, and correlates of social reputation were measured using the Bull-S questionnaire. There are differences in how primary and secondary education students perceive parenting styles and family climate.

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Parental factors are related to bullying victimization and socio-affective group variables social preference, acceptance or rejection levels, and the number of friends. The study highlighs risk and protective factors for victimization. Los factores familiares incluyen el clima familiar y los estilos de crianza.

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The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which aggressive behavior towards peers predicts greater personal, school, and family maladjustment in adolescent aggressors of both sexes. The sample consisted of Spanish adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, who anonymously and voluntarily completed self-report questionnaires. Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that, regarding personal adjustment, aggressive behavior was significantly associated with high scores in depressive symptomatology, perceived stress and loneliness, and low scores in self-esteem, life satisfaction and empathy, for both sexes.

In the school setting, aggressive behavior was related to low scores in academic engagement, friends in the classroom, perception of teacher support, and a positive attitude towards school. At the family level, significant relationships were observed between aggressive behavior and high scores in offensive communication and family conflict, and low scores in open communication with parents, general expressiveness, and family cohesion.

In cases of peer violence it is necessary to give urgent attention to all those involved, since maladjustment in aggressors can be predicted in many levels of intervention. This paper aims to 1 investigate whether psychological need satisfaction and frustration are distinguishable constructs or part of a single continuum, and 2 to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale NSFS.


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In all samples, a CFA model specifying satisfaction and frustration of each psychological need as distinguishable constructs fit the data better than models specifying them as part of a continuum, even after including method corrections CFA or cross-loadings ESEM. Scale score reliabilities were adequate only when the satisfaction and frustration of each need were treated as distinguishable constructs. The paper provides strong support for specifying need satisfaction and frustration as distinguishable but correlated constructs, as well as adequate evidence of dimensionality, reliability and criterion validity for the Spanish version of the NSFS.

The present study aims to explore the main effects and interactive effects of empathy, guilt, shame, pride authentic and hubristic , and moral pride, on prosocial and antisocial behavior in children. The sample group comprised children aged between 10 and 14 selected from four schools in the Basque Country Spain. Hierarchical multiple regression models were used in the statistical analyses.

Prosocial behavior was found to be predicted by the additive interaction between empathy and moral pride, by guilt and, to a lesser extent and negatively, by shame. In relation to antisocial behavior, children with a strong disposition to guilt scored lower for antisocial behavior, regardless of their empathy levels. Nevertheless, the combination of low empathy and low guilt levels was associated with highest antisocial behavior scores. As regards shame, this emotion was moderately associated with antisocial behavior.

Two popular concepts, work engagement and personal initiative, are different but related constructs. This study is based on and extends the Frese and Fay model of personal initiative PI by including work engagement WE and self-efficacy as antecedents of PI, and performance as a consequence. The results of these two studies confirmed our hypotheses: WE and self-efficacy lead to higher PI, which, in turn, leads to higher performance.

In addition to considering WE as an antecedent of PI, the results lead to considering PI as an antecedent of performance. Empathy, defined as the ability to access and respond to the inner world of another person, is a multidimensional construct involving cognitive, emotional and self-regulatory mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies report that empathy recruits brain regions which are part of the social cognition network.

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Among the different resting state networks, the Default Mode Network DMN may be of particular interest for the study of empathy since it has been implicated in social cognition tasks. The current study compared the cognitive and emotional empathy scores, as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, with the patterns of activation within the DMN, through the neuroimaging methodology of resting-state functional magnetic resonance. Results suggest a significant positive correlation between cognitive empathy and activation of the bilateral superior medial frontal cortex nodes of the DMN.

Contrastingly, a negative correlation was found between emotional empathy and the same brain region. Overall, this data highlights a critical role of the medial cortical regions of the DMN, specifically its anterior node, for both cognitive and emotional domains of the empathic process. However, there are no indications of how to design a DIF study as a validation study. We perform a comprehensive review of the literature and make theoretical and practical proposals.

The article provides arguments in favour of addressing DIF detection and interpretation as validation studies, and suggestions for conducting DIF validation studies. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data within a mixed methods research perspective, along with planning DIF studies as validation studies, can help improve the validity of test score interpretations.

The p-value is currently one of the key elements for testing statistical hypothesis despite its critics. Bayesian statistics and Bayes Factors have been proposed as alternatives to improve the scientific decision making when testing a hypothesis. This study compares the performance of two Bayes Factor estimations the BIC-based Bayes Factor and the Vovk-Sellke p-value calibration with the p-value when the null hypothesis holds.

A million pairs of independent data sets were simulated. All simulated data came from a normal population and different sample sizes were considered. Exact p-values for comparing sample means were recorded for each sample pair as well as Bayesian alternatives. Bayes factors exhibit better performance than the p-value, favouring the null hypothesis over the alternative.

The BIC- based Bayes Factor is more accurate than the p-value calibration under the simulation conditions and this behaviour improves as the sample size grows. Our results show that Bayesian factors are good complements for testing a hypothesis. The use of the Bayesian alternatives we have tested could help researchers avoid claiming false statistical discoveries.

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