Some cases involved a combination of two types of complaints. Indirect causality was determined in There is direct causality between in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure and vaginal or cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma. Causality is indirect in the case of disorders linked to prematurity in third generation victims. Causality was determined by the experts on the basis of scientific criteria which attribute the presenting pathologies to diethylstilbestrol exposure. When other risk factors come into play, or when exposure is indirect third generation , this causality is diminished.
The O and Sr isotope ratios measured in tooth enamel record the average dietary isotope signature ingested by that individual during their childhood. When this data is compared to the isotope signature of the burial site it can be used to indicate if the individual migrated into this area during their lifetime. The O isotopic composition of meteoric water changes depending on climate, temperature and quantity of precipitation. O isotope ratios in skeletal and dental remains are related to body water, which in turn is influenced by diet, physiology and climate.
Most of the water consumed by large mammals comes from drinking water, typically sourced locally. Sr isotope ratios on the other hand vary between different geologic regions, depending on their age and composition. Sr is released through weathering and transported into the soil, ground and surface water, where it becomes available for uptake by plants, enters the food cycle and eventually ends up in skeletal and dental tissue where it substitutes for calcium.
We analysed the teeth of 18 adult and 8 juvenile disarticulated skeletons from Le Tumulus des Sables. The Sr isotope analysis involved drilling a 0. We found that most of the individuals at Le Tumulus des Sables show O and Sr isotope ratios corresponding to the local environmental signal and we interpret these as part of the local population. Instability of a highly vulnerable high alpine rock ridge: Glacier retreat and permafrost degradation are actually more and more thought to explain the increasing instability of rock slopes and rock ridges in high mountain environments.
Since , this face is yearly surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning to obtain high-resolution 3D models. Their diachronic comparison gives precise measurements of the evolution of the rock slope. Eight rock detachments have thus been documented 0. Rock temperature measurements at the ridge and the close Aiguille du Midi m a.
Ceci permet de comprendre le fait reconnu que le film precurseur est bien visible seulement si l'angle de contact thermodynamique est nul. We analyse the shape of the liquid-air interface for a droplet spreading on a solid, in a regime where the Antonov rule is satisfied, taking into account the long range Van der Waals interactions between liquid and solid. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein represent an outstanding progress in chronic myeloid leukemia and long-term progression-free survival has become a reality for a majority of patients.
However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may at best chronicize rather than cure the disease thus current recommendation is to pursue treatment indefinitely. As a consequence, high quality treatment and care must integrate optimal disease control and treatment tolerability. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have an overall favorable safety profile in clinical practice since most adverse events are mild to moderate in intensity. However, recent evidence has emerged that new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors may sometimes damage vital organs and if not adequately managed, morbidity and mortality may increase.
The 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is licensed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and newly diagnosed chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia. Nilotinib represents an important therapeutic option but it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Reponse dynamique des structures sous charges de vent. The main purpose of this research is to assemble numerical tools that allows realistic dynamic study of structures under wind loading. The availability of such numerical tools is becoming more important for the industry, following previous experiences in structural damages after extreme wind events.
The methodology of the present study involves two main steps: The thesis is presented as an ensemble of four articles written for refereed journals and conferences that showcase the contributions of the present study to the advancement of transient dynamic study of structures under wind loading, on the wind model itself the first article and on the application of the wind study on complex structures the next three articles. The articles presented are as follows: The present research project has shown the versatility of the use of the developed wind study methodology to solve concerns related to different type of complex structures.
In addition, this study proposes simplified methods that are useful for practical engineers when there is the need to solve similar problems. Modelization des consequences possibles de la future demande bioenergetique mondiale pour le bois et les forest en France. A total of 17 sites were collected in CDL, 11 of which were in LDH, to document spatial variability, and a 26cm long core addresses historical changes. The bulk of the diatom assemblage in LDH can be classified as both eutrophic and moderately metal tolerant, using modern national diatom indices developed and used by the French regional water agencies.
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Other variation is reflected in the phytoplankton composition both spatially, and interannually. Temporally, Stephanodicsus largely S. One possible explanation is that the samples, taken March 30th, preferentially preserved the early spring Stephanodiscus bloom, in contrast to the samples, which were taken in January. The sediment core provides an historical record, where the uppermost 4cm plot with the bulk of the LDH surface samples and contain abundant Cocconeis, 4 cm is phytoplankton-rich, largely Cyclostephanos dubius and Aulacoseira muzzanensis, and represents a less weed-choked environment prior to the Elodea invasion.
The base of the core is dominated by Amphora and. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple. L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance.
En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques.
Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes.
Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe.
At the Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques, the encoding of more than forty legacy finding aids written between and is part of a program of digitization of the collections. Because of the size of the project, an external consultant, ArchProteus, has been brought in and specific management procedures have been put in place….
De l'importance des orbites periodiques: L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables OPIs d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble en principe infini d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique i. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe.
Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale.
Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question.
La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques.
Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles. The Massif Central area, characterized by a typical intraplate alkaline serie, is the largest magmatic province of the West-European Rift system. Although it has been the subject of several studies, the nature of Massif Central sources is still a matter of debate and many hypotheses are proposed, including deep-rooted continental hotspot, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and an asthenospheric flow linked to the lithospheric root of the Alpine chain.
Major element compositions show that melts trapped in inclusions evolve by limited fractional crystallization. Their major element chemistry rules out the hypothesis of a mantle source in the spinel stability field and requires a garnet-bearing mantle source.
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Analyzed for trace-element composition by LA-ICP-MS, they display homogeneous, enriched patterns, similar to those characterizing oceanic island and continental basalts. Such trace-element feature are typical of. Water and beverage consumption among children aged years in France: Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group years, years , income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location.
Beverages were classified into nine groups: French children n aged years. Older children drank more plain water than did younger children and boys drank more plain water than did girls. No socio-economic gradient for plain water consumption was observed. Children drank milk at breakfast and plain water during lunch and dinner. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns by eating occasion and location can help identify ways to increase water consumption among children. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age LIA , and the causes of these temporal anomalies are yet being poorly understood.
To address this question, highly resolved glacier reconstructions going far back in time based on historical documents for the last years or on dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating for the Holocene are very important as they give valuable insights in past climate. However, such reconstructions exist only for few glaciers worldwide, depending on the public perception and the accessibility of the corresponding glacier and its surrounding area.
One of these regions of interest is the well-documented Mont Blanc area. Here, we present a new high-resolution reconstruction of length changes for the "Glacier des Bossons", situated in the French part of the Mont Blanc area. This reconstruction is based on historical material newly discovered, that has not been evaluated so far for glacier reconstructions.
More than , often unpublished, artworks paintings, drawings, prints , photographs, maps and written accounts have been critically analysed and give an univocal picture of the glacier's history. The new reconstruction dates back to AD The LIA maximum extent was reached in Until the present, the glacier has lost about 1. The length curve of the "Glacier des Bossons" is finally analysed regarding climate data and also compared with the nearby "Mer. Its focus is on the protection of the environment and is part of the University of Poitiers, one of the oldest universities in Europe.
GFP is an annual conference where the latest developments in the field of pesticide research are presented. The topics most commonly discussed mainly concern environmental quality, monitoring, fate, and transfer of pesticides in the environment or risks associated with use of pesticides, but every year a key theme sets the tone. For this 42nd edition, the theme "Innovative strategies for plant protection" was retained.
Nonetheless, it seems clear that lower-class youths do not benefit as much from their degree or university experience as do those who come from more privileged backgrounds. The present study statistically analyses the evolution of higher education since with respect to social origin in order to determine whether the massification of education has really been accompanied by democratization.
Its conclusion is twofold: This evolution has indeed allowed for a certain democratization of higher education by offering new perspectives for the middle and lower classes; but nevertheless it has not always granted them access to prestigious courses of study, so that one still finds two systems of higher education which are relatively separate and whose separation remains a function of social origin. The surrounding countryside presents an interesting pattern of randomly oriented, small individual farmsteads.
Uranium mining in France. Since the onset of the first ''oil shock'' in , France has pursued a policy of steadily increasing energy independence based on nuclear power for generation of electricity. In parallel with growth of the French nuclear power, Cogema has become a world leader in all aspects of the fuel cycle, providing services not only domestically but internationally as well.
As a uranium mining company, Cogema has steadily developed domestic and foreign sources of supply, and over the years it has maintained the world's strongest uranium exploration effort throughout the ups and downs of the market. La politique africaine de la France et des Etats-Unis en Afrique sub-saharienne. Le facteur religieux Les missionnaires en In the case of molecules, the interaction of the two-pulse sequence leads to the interference of vibrational wave packets. We analyse and discuss in this case the effects of a thermal distribution of initial states on the temporal coherent control signal.
Outreach in southern France. France 's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in , ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques UIC; Paris.
But in the company was a complete newcomer. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about people now work at the site.
The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make plant visits each year. Ajustement automatique des parametres de coupe pour l'obtention de stabilite dynamique en usinage.
High speed machining has as principal limitation the dynamic stability of the cutting action which can generate premature wear of the machine spindle and the cutting tool, tool breakage and dimensional errors on the machined part. This phenomenon is known in the literature as chatter and is defined as being self-excited vibrations. This master thesis presents an approach applicable to manufacturing environments that allows eliminating chatter in real time during machining of aerospace aluminum alloys before the damaging effect can occur.
A control algorithm is developed in order to detect chatter using a microphone and by analyzing the audio signal in the frequency domain. The analysis allows determining precisely the frequency at which the chatter occurs and therefore, the spindle speed is adjusted in order to make the tooth passing frequency equal to the detected chatter frequency. Also, a new feedrate is determined by keeping a constant chip load and within the physical limits of the cutting tool. The new cutting parameters are then sent out to the machine controller as a command using a communication interface between an external computer and the controller.
Multiples experimental tests were conducted to validate the effectiveness to detect and suppress chatter. High speed machining tests, between 15 and 33 RPM, were performed in order to reflect real conditions for aerospace components manufacturing. Outcomes are thought of as changes from a reference point- the reference point is itself changed by how the These are discussed below. General Themes Cue integration involves the use Analyse dynamique des lignes de grande portee sous charges de vent.
There are two types of electric crossing: We always consider the last one as a more economic option. The inconvenience of an overhead-line crossing would be the environmental constraints among which the existing obstacles, the clearance for the navigation and the aesthetics demanded by the public. The overhead-line crossings usually have conductors of long ranges which are outside of the field of application for the current transmission line codes.
These are limited to reaches of a length included between m and m, as well as a height of support lower than 60 m. However, for reaches over m and over a height over 60 m, the criteria of conception in the transmission line codes for the calculation of wind loads are not applicable. In this study we concentrate on loads on the supports owed to the limit wind applied to bare conductors and insulators chains The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of the temporal and spatial correlation of the wind load along the conductors on a finite element model.
A special attention was brought to the evaluation of the importance of the dynamic load transmitted on by the conductors and the insulators chains for the case of a turbulent wind load. The numerical study on finite element model for the example of a overhead-line crossing was done with the software ADINA. The wind load for the finite element model for the example of a overhead-line crossing was generated by the software WindGen which uses the method of Simiu-Scanlan and the method of spectral representation developed by Shinozuka-Deodatis.
Wind loads generated where integrated into the finite element model ADINA for a dynamic analysis of the overhead-line crossing. For the first part, the current methods are used to calculate the efforts in supports due to the wind loads with an engineering approach and a comparaison approach. The current methods are then compared with the efforts obtained from an advanced method, transient dynamic and spectral stochastic, and specifically for the case of a simple overhead-line and an overhead-line crossings. For the second part, the effect of the longitudinal correlation of the wind load on two parallel conductors was examined.
Finally, dynamic experiments on an insulators chain were made to determine the variation of the damping and the rigidity of the system for different type of insulators, different speed of application of the load and the inclination of the insulator. Active Control of Engine Dynamics Le controle actif pour la dynamique des moteurs. Because the practical problem of suppressing combustion instabilities has One consequence of fuel-air premixing is that the heat.
In the accident data analysis in Appendix 3, insufficient data was available to determine whether rotor configuration or associated. Scramjet Thermal Management Tenue thermique des superstatoreacteurs. Etude exploratoire des conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Il existe peu d'etudes sur les conceptions touchant les domaines de la biologie, notamment sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine Nous avons observe egalement l'absence de recherche menee aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial sur cette question.
Nous avons voulu combler une lacune en menant une recherche sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Pour mener cette recherche nous nous sommes inspires d'une methode developpee par Treagust Le premier niveau de formulation didactique etablit l'architecture du systeme et la fonction nutritive de la circulation. Le second niveau de formulation didactique decrit et relie les parametres de la dynamique de la circulation et leur relation: Pression, Debit et Resistance. Le troisieme niveau de formulation didactique s'interesse au controle de la circulation du sang dans un contexte d'homeostasie qui implique la regulation de la pression arterielle.
Nous avons construit un questionnaire en nous guidant sur les niveaux de formulation didactique et l'analyse des entrevues menees aupres de dix-huit eleves, representatifs de la population cible. Ce questionnaire fut administre a un echantillon de eleves disperses dans six colleges de la region de Montreal. Notre echantillon comprend des eleves inscrits a des programmes de l'ordre collegial en Sciences de la nature et en Techniques de la sante et qui n'ont pas suivi le cours sur la circulation sanguine.
Notre analyse des reponses des eleves de notre echantillon aux questions sur le premier niveau de formulation didactique revele que la majorite des eleves considerent que le systeme circulatoire relie les organes les uns aux autres dans un circuit en serie. Notre analyse revele egalement que la majorite des eleves estiment que les nutriments sont extraits du sang par les organes selon un processus de selection base sur les besoins determines par la fonction de l'organe.
Ces besoins sont differents selon les organes qui ne. The Spirit of France. Charles de Gaulle sought grandeur to unite France and give The war had left France with little influence in Europe and had psychologically and morally weakened the French France as a way to increase the influence base of the French state. Influence, either perceived or real, meant power. Two decades of European peace and prosperity are causing the French to reevaluate the threat from the East and to question the France has gained strength.
Accreditation or Validation of Prior Experiential Learning: The paper seeks to review not only the context in which the concepts underpinning VAP in France have developed, but also…. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: Les applications reliees a la generation d'energie motivent la recherche de materiaux ayant un fort pouvoir thermoelectrique S.
De plus, S nous renseigne sur certaines proprietes fondamentales des materiaux, comme, par exemple, la transition entre l'etat coherent et incoherent des quasi-particules lorsque la temperature augmente. Empiriquement, la presence de fortes interactions electron-electron peut mener a un pouvoir thermoelectrique geant.
Nous avons donc etudie le modele le plus simple qui tient compte de ces fortes interactions, le modele de Hubbard. La theorie du champ moyen dynamique DMFT est tout indiquee dans ce cas. Nous nous sommes concentres sur un systeme tridimensionnel 3d cubique a face centree fcc , et ce, pour plusieurs raisons. A Ce type de cristal est tres commun dans la nature.
B La DMFT donne de tres bons resultats en 3d et donc ce choix sert aussi de preuve de principe de la methode. C Finalement, a cause de la frustration electronique intrinseque au fcc, celui-ci ne presente pas de symetrie particule-trou, ce qui est tres favorable a l'apparition d'une grande valeur de S. Ce travail demontre que lorsque le materiau est un isolant a demi-remplissage a cause des fortes interactions isolant de Mott , il est possible d'obtenir de grands pouvoirs thermoelectriques en le dopant legerement.
C'est un resultat pratique important. Du point de vue methodologique, nous avons montre comment la limite de frequence infinie de S et l'approche dite de Kelvin, qui considere la limite de frequence nulle avant la limite thermodynamique pour S, donnent des estimations fiables de la vraie limite continue DC dans les domaines de temperature appropriee.
Ces deux approches facilitent grandement les calculs en court-circuit ant la necessite de recourir a de problematiques prolongements analytiques. Nous avons trouve que la methode de calcul a frequence infinie fonctionne bien lorsque les echelles d'energie sont relativement faibles. Rance has moved toward closer military cooperation with NATO as demonstrated, for example, by the subcrdination c!
Greater cooperation may develop between France and the United Kingdom, particularly in nuclear matters, as indicated in the French White.
anesthÃ©sie clinique: Xavier Dupont John G Brock-Utne: eywaapps.dk: Books
France and European Security. France and her European allies. This began to change in the late s. The French contribution to European security is now a matter of considerable He interpreted independence in a specific manner. Although France would maintain ties and commitments to its allies, the French government. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques.
Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique.
Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs: Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques.
Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur.
La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une. Un projet d'horloge atomique spatiale utlilsant le refroidissement des atomes par faisceaux laser: This paper, "Un projet d'horloge atomique spatiale utlilsant le refroidissement des atomes par faisceaux laser: Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques.
L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol.
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De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS.
Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses. The dynamic or seismic behavior of hydraulic structures is, as for conventional structures, essential to assure protection of human lives. These types of analyses also aim at limiting structural damage caused by an earthquake to prevent rupture or collapse of the structure.
The particularity of these hydraulic structures is that not only the internal displacements are caused by the earthquake, but also by the hydrodynamic loads resulting from fluid-structure interaction. This thesis reviews the existing complex and simplified methods to perform such dynamic analysis for hydraulic structures.
For the complex existing methods, attention is placed on the difficulties arising from their use. Particularly, interest is given in this work on the use of transmitting boundary conditions to simulate the semi infinity of reservoirs. A procedure has been developed to estimate the error that these boundary conditions can introduce in finite element dynamic analysis. Depending on their formulation and location, we showed that they can considerably affect the response of such fluid-structure systems.
For practical engineering applications, simplified procedures are still needed to evaluate the dynamic behavior of structures in contact with water. A review of the existing simplified procedures showed that these methods are based on numerous simplifications that can affect the prediction of the dynamic behavior of such systems. One of the main objectives of this thesis has been to develop new simplified methods that are more accurate than those existing.
First, a new spectral analysis method has been proposed. Expressions for the fundamental frequency of fluid-structure systems, key parameter of spectral analysis, have been developed. We show that this new technique can easily be implemented in a spreadsheet or program, and that its calculation time is near instantaneous. When compared to more complex analytical or numerical method, this new procedure yields excellent prediction of the dynamic behavior of fluid-structure systems.
Spectral analyses ignore the transient and oscillatory nature of vibrations. When such dynamic analyses show that some areas of the studied structure undergo excessive stresses, time history analyses allow a better estimate of the extent of these zones as well as a time notion of these excessive stresses. Furthermore, the existing spectral analyses methods for fluid-structure systems account only for the static effect of higher modes. Thought this can generally be sufficient for dams, for flexible structures the dynamic effect of these modes should be accounted for. New methods have been developed for fluid-structure systems to account for these observations as well as the flexibility of foundations.
A first method was developed to study structures in contact with one or two finite or infinite water domains. This new technique includes flexibility of structures and foundations as well as the dynamic effect of higher vibration modes and variations of the levels of the water domains. Extension of this method was performed to study beam structures in contact with fluids. These new developments have also allowed extending existing analytical formulations of the dynamic properties of a dry beam to a new formulation that includes effect of fluid-structure interaction.
The method yields a very good estimate of the dynamic behavior of beam-fluid systems or beam like structures in contact with fluid. Finally, a Modified Accelerogram Method MAM has been developed to modify the design earthquake into a new accelerogram that directly accounts for the effect of fluid-structure interaction. This new accelerogram can therefore be applied directly to the dry structure i. This original technique can include numerous parameters that influence the dynamic response of such systems and allows to treat analytically the fluid-structure interaction while keeping the advantages of finite element modeling.
Diethylstilbestrol DES and Cancer. In , Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP.
This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: Linguistic Pluralism in France. This paper suggests that a discussion of linguistic pluralism in France begins by chronicling the emergence of French as the primary language in early French history and the role of linguistic minorities at various periods in French history. It then focuses on growing linguistic activism in the second half of the twentieth century, when the…. This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in France. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: We review some anesthesiologist's curriculum and demographic characteristics in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists.
To become a certified anesthesiologist and an intensive care physician currently requires six years' medical education, passing national medical examination, and five years' special training as an intern of anesthesiology and intensive care. This educational course was started in There are certified anesthesiologists in France in The average age is Approximately two thirds of certified anesthesiologists are working in public institutions.
More than half of certified anesthesiologists actually participate in daily intensive care practice. The number of certified anesthesiologists has been increasing gradually totaling 10, persons in The number of certified anesthesiologists per ten thousands general population is 1. Working hours and holidays are regulated by the French Labour Law. The anaesthesiologist often works in a team with a nurse anaesthetist. The number of certified anesthesiologists in France is larger than that in Japan.
Management of anesthesia in France seems to have an advantage in manpower. La disponibilite des modeles precis des avions est parmi les elements cles permettant d'assurer leurs ameliorations. Ces modeles servent a ameliorer les commandes de vol et de concevoir de nouveaux systemes aerodynamiques pour la conception des ailes deformables des avions. Ce projet consiste a concevoir un systeme d'identification de certains parametres du modele du moteur de l'avion d'affaires americain Cessna Citation X pour la phase de croisiere a partir des essais en vol.
Ces essais ont ete effectues sur le simulateur de vol concu et fabrique par CAE Inc. En effet, le niveau D est le plus haut niveau de precision donne par l'autorite federale de reglementation FAA de l'aviation civile aux Etats-Unis. Une methodologie basee sur les reseaux de neurones optimises a l'aide d'un algorithme intitule le "grand deluge etendu" est utilisee dans la conception de ce systeme d'identification.
Plusieurs tests de vol pour differentes altitudes et differents nombres de Mach ont ete realises afin de s'en servir comme bases de donnees pour l'apprentissage des reseaux de neurones. La validation de ce modele a ete realisee a l'aide des donnees du simulateur. Malgre la nonlinearite et la complexite du systeme, les parametres du moteur ont ete tres bien predits pour une enveloppe de vol determinee. Ce modele estime pourrait etre utilise pour des analyses de fonctionnement du moteur et pourrait assurer le controle de l'avion pendant cette phase de croisiere.
L'identification des parametres du moteur pourrait etre realisee aussi pour les autres phases de montee et de descente afin d'obtenir son modele complet pour toute l'enveloppe du vol de l'avion Cessna Citation X montee, croisiere, descente. Cette methode employee dans ce travail pourrait aussi etre efficace pour realiser un modele pour l'identification des coefficients aerodynamiques du meme avion a partir toujours des essais en vol.
The Case of France. The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care.
General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France.
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This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited.
Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good.
While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. New Terrorism In France. While France experienced social rioting in the summer of , it still remained free from I organized it all Le syndrome des enfants battus: La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID: Education et Formation des Adultes en France.
Adult Education in France. This report on a national seminar attended by over French adult educators from universities, industry, government agencies, and voluntary agencies is divided into three parts. Part I summarizes conclusions and recommendations made by nine commissions on conditions including needs and objectives, obstacles to continuing education, educational…. City of Paris, France. STS 12 - 20 Sept This mm Hasselblad color photo of Paris, France recorded during this mission, shows urban land uses in great detail. Several airports are clear, including the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget.
Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to the growth of this island city. The city expanded from its island state to become a major urban center in Europe because of its location, its easy access by river traffic, and its productive hinterland.
The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map.
The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.
In May , three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. Published by Elsevier SAS. Formation des etoiles massives dans les galaxies spirales. Women in physics in France. We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: France acts on electronic cigarettes.
France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive. All other definitions are merely negative chaos which p,.
Laps a,, margin- al Among ,ie very slightly modified. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement TAVR is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. The median age of patients was Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from Measles is one of the most contagious diseases implicated in an outbreak in Western Europe for a few years.
In France , the outbreak began in , especially in the southern regions. Most of the cases are mild but deleterious effects can occur in infants, during the pregnancy, or in immunosuppressive patients. Pneumonia and encephalitis are the major complications in these patients. Measles illness during pregnancy results in a higher risk of premature labor, spontaneous abortion, and low-birthweight infants. Death from measles was reported in approximately 0. The National Reference Center for measles and paramyxoviridae is implicated in biological confirmation of cases and epidemiologic surveillance.
The measles genotype is determined by sequencing a nucleotids fragment of the N gene, as the World Health Organization WHO recommendation. This molecular analysis helps determine the geographic origin of the virus and the viral strains circulating in the country. In , specimens were received. The most important cause of measles resurgence is low vaccination coverage. A surgical sabbatical in France. During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery.
Brittany is a beautiful province of France , having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.
The objectives of the present study were: The 21st version of the LGM April was used. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary reference prescription book in France was compared. Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.
In France the desire to expand public health developed mainly because of the hygienist movement which prevailed in the 19th century. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis: In , rabies was responsible for more than 35, deaths worldwide. Three cases of human rabies that had been contracted abroad were diagnosed in France during the same year. Cases notified in followed exposure outside the country. Fox, bat, and dog rabies are reviewed on the basis of the latest epidemiological data obtained in France.
Two cases of fox rabies diagnosed in occurred at the border between France and Germany, thus preventing five French departments bordering Germany from being officially declared rabies-free in The campaigns for oral immunization of foxes that are led since are responsible for the decrease in rabies incidence. Though not well known, bat rabies is a reality in France , involving either European virus strains five cases all over the country or African virus strains that are carried along by imported tropical bats.
Dogs rabies is also today an imported disease. The decrease in risk for rabies has resulted from the conjunction of multiple efforts: Furthermore, recommendations for preventive pre-exposure immunization have recently been changed, leading to modifications of the French licensing form. Beginning of viniculture in France. Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras ca. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France.
Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. Beginning of Viniculture in France. Des ballons pour demain. Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early s in Finland and France , 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines.
Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally. Women and Divorce in France. Reviews the history and current status of women and divorce in France. Recent statistics are noted and changes in the status of women are outlined. Issues related to single women and working women are discussed. Other topics include women and the family, women and politics, divorce laws and ramifications. Estimation et validation des derivees de stabilite et controle du modele dynamique non-lineaire d'un drone a voilure fixe. Knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of a fixed-wing UAV is necessary to design flight control laws and to conceive a high quality flight simulator.
The basic features of a flight mechanic model include the properties of mass, inertia and major aerodynamic terms. They respond to a complex process involving various numerical analysis techniques and experimental procedures. This thesis focuses on the analysis of estimation techniques applied to estimate problems of stability and control derivatives from flight test data provided by an experimental UAV.
To achieve this objective, a modern identification methodology Quad-M is used to coordinate the processing tasks from multidisciplinary fields, such as parameter estimation modeling, instrumentation, the definition of flight maneuvers and validation. The system under study is a non-linear model with six degrees of freedom with a linear aerodynamic model. The time domain techniques are used for identification of the drone. The first technique, the equation error method is used to determine the structure of the aerodynamic model.
Thereafter, the output error method and filter error method are used to estimate the aerodynamic coefficients values. The Matlab scripts for estimating the parameters obtained from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA are used and modified as necessary to achieve the desired results. A commendable effort in this part of research is devoted to the design of experiments. This includes an awareness of the system data acquisition onboard and the definition of flight maneuvers.
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